International air cargo business can be divided into "flight transport" and "charter transport" two categories.
1. Flight transportation
The so-called aircraft transport refers to regular flights on fixed routes. Flight transportation generally has a fixed departure station, arrival station and stop. Cargo flights are only opened by some of the larger air cargo companies, or some of the broader integrated airlines, on the more concentrated routes. For the former, general airlines usually use mixed passenger and cargo aircraft, which also accept the transport of small batches of goods while taking passengers. Because the flight transportation has a fixed route, a fixed airport, a fixed flight period, and a relatively fixed fee standard within a certain time. For importers and exporters, the shipment and arrival time of the goods can be calculated before the signing of the trade contract, and the freight cost can be calculated, and the performance of the contract is also more guaranteed, so it has become the preferred form of air freight for most traders.
In recent years, with the intensifying competition in the cargo industry, airlines, in order to reflect the fast and accurate characteristics of air cargo, constantly improve the on-time rate of flights (the proportion of flights arriving on time), emphasize fast ground services, and on the basis of attracting traditional fresh and perishable goods, valuable goods and urgent goods, put forward the point of providing logistics services for enterprises, especially multinational enterprises. Strive to become a multinational company distribution of finished products, semi-finished products of the right hand. However, on the other hand, due to the use of mixed passenger and cargo models, flights are mainly passenger services, and cargo space is limited, which can not meet the requirements of timely shipment of large quantities of goods, and often can only be transported in batches. The change of passenger volume of the same route in different seasons will also directly affect the quantity of cargo loading, so that there are great limitations in the transportation of cargo.
2. Charter transportation
Since the cargo space is often limited under the form of flight transportation, charter transportation becomes an important mode of transportation when the cargo volume is large.
Charter transport can usually be divided into whole machine charter and partial charter.
The adjusted aircraft charter refers to the mode of transport in which the whole aircraft is leased to the charterer by the airline or charter agent according to the conditions and freight rates agreed by both parties in advance in the contract, and the goods are loaded from one or several airports to the specified destination.
Partial charter refers to the joint charter of an aircraft by several air freight forwarders or consigners, or the charter company sells the space of an aircraft to several air freight forwarders.
Relatively speaking, some charter flights are suitable for transporting bulk goods, the amount of goods is not enough for the whole machine, and the freight cost of goods in this form is lower than that of charter flights.
Charter transportation meets the needs of import and export transportation of large quantities of goods. At the same time, charter transportation changes with the changes of supply and demand in the international market, which brings potential benefits to charter operators. However, the cost of charter transportation is calculated according to the round-trip distance, and there is a risk of empty space on the return journey. Compared with air transportation, charter transportation can be negotiated by the two sides of the plane, the beginning and end of the voyage and the stopover of the airport, so it is more flexible. However, due to the needs of national governments for security, but also in order to protect the interests of domestic airlines, the aircraft of other airlines through their own airspace or landing on their own territory often greatly restrictions, complex and cumbersome approval procedures greatly increase the operating costs of charter transport, so there are not many companies using charter business.